Mutual Fund

Mutual Fund Guide

Mutual funds provide a well-diversified, low-cost, and tax-efficient approach to grow your money. They are an excellent investment tool for individuals lacking the competence necessary to invest directly in stocks. You simply invest in a fund, and the fund manager will select stocks that he believes will generate a profit.

Despite their simplicity and suitability for small investors, mutual funds are not the preferred investment vehicle for the great majority of Indian investors, who are either unaware of them or believe them to be too complicated to comprehend.

If you are one of them, the following article should assist you in navigating the world of mutual funds with ease. It summarizes the critical milestones in your mutual fund investing experience and covers everything you need to get started.

What exactly is a mutual fund?

A mutual fund is an investment product that pools the money of multiple investors to purchase a variety of securities. However, the majority of individuals view mutual funds as an investment method. In reality, an investment vehicle allows you to invest in a variety of financial products such as stocks, bonds, gold, and money market instruments.

When you purchase a unit in a mutual fund, you acquire minor ownership in all of the fund's investments. Mutual funds can be an excellent investment choice due to their ease of use and benefits.

How do mutual funds work?

A mutual fund is essentially a trust that pools money from a group of similarly minded participants. Numerous mutual fund schemes are managed and operated by Asset Management Companies (AMCs). Each plan has a particular investment objective and is designed to meet individual investment demands.

The money collected from investors is invested in a variety of assets, including stocks, gold, bonds, and other securities, depending on the fund's aim. Each fund is overseen by a finance professional known as a fund manager whose primary objective is to maximize the returns on the fund's investments. The income earned by the fund is divided and dispersed proportionately among the investors.

MF Type

Types of mutual funds in India

The fundamentals of investment are a fantastic place to start. According to the assets they invest in, all mutual funds fall into one of six core categories:

Mutual funds often focus on a subset of their broader category, such as long-term bonds or overseas stocks.Mutual funds are classified into various categories. Each fund type is designed to accomplish specific objectives. The following are the most frequent forms of mutual funds:

Asset class-specific funds

Debt Funds

Debt funds (alternatively referred to as fixed-income funds) invest in a variety of assets, including government bonds, corporate bonds, and money market instruments. These funds often seek to provide investors with consistent returns and are considered to be relatively stable. Debt funds are appropriate if your objective is to earn a consistent income and you are averse to taking a large risk.

Equity Funds

In comparison, equity funds invest the majority of their assets in stocks. These funds' primary purpose is capital appreciation. However, because equities funds' returns are related to market movements, they carry a larger risk. Due to the risk associated with the investment dispersed over a lengthy period of time, equity funds may be a good choice for long-term goals such as retirement planning or home ownership.

Hybrid Funds

If you want to invest in both equities and debt, hybrid funds may be the way to go. They invest in a variety of asset classes, including equity and fixed-income assets. Hybrid funds are further categorized into six groups based on their asset allocation:

  • Conservative hybrid fund: The fund invests approximately 75–90% of its assets in debt securities and approximately 10–25% in equity or equity-related instruments.
  • Balanced hybrid fund: The fund invests approximately 40%-60% in equities and 40%-60% in debt securities.
  • Aggressive hybrid fund: It invests between 65 and 80% in equities and 20 to 35% in debt securities.
  • Dynamic asset allocation fund: Invests in both equities and debt and manages the fund's asset allocation based on pre-defined market indicators.
  • Multi-asset allocation: Invests in at least three asset classes with a minimum of 10% in each.
  • Arbitrage fund: The fund uses an arbitrage strategy and invests at least 65 percent of its assets in stocks and equity-related products.
  • Equity savings fund: At least 65% of assets are invested in equity and 10% in debt instruments.

Types of mutual funds based on structure

Open-ended Mutual funds

Open-ended funds are mutual funds in which investors can make additional investments at any time. These funds are purchased and sold on the basis of their Net Asset Value (NAV). Open-ended funds might be an excellent liquid alternative because the fund units can be purchased and redeemed at any time. The majority of mutual funds on the market are open-ended.

Close-ended Mutual funds

Closed-ended funds have a predetermined maturity date. Investors can participate in the fund only at the time of its inception. And they can withdraw their funds only at the maturity date. These funds are traded on the stock market much like stocks. They are not considered liquid, due to their lower trade volumes.

Interval Funds

Interval funds combine the characteristics of closed-end and open-end funds. These funds do not allow investors to trade units at any time. Certain time periods or intervals have been established during which you can purchase and redeem your funds. These funds invest in a variety of securities, both debt and equity.

Types of funds based on investment objective

Additionally, mutual funds can be categorized according to their investment objectives.

Growth funds

Capital appreciation is the primary objective of growth funds. These funds invest a sizable amount of their assets in stocks and emerging markets. They are, nevertheless, risky; therefore, it is advisable to invest in them over a long period of time. Additionally, if you are approaching retirement, you may choose to avoid growth funds.

Income funds

As the name implies, income funds seek to offer investors a consistent stream of income. These are debt funds that invest in a variety of instruments, including bonds, debentures, commercial papers, government securities, and certificates of deposit. They can be a source of income for low-risk investors in the short run. Additionally, depending on your investment horizon and risk tolerance, you can invest in duration funds. These are open-ended debt funds that invest in government and corporate debt as well as money market securities.

Liquid funds

Liquid funds are designed to give investors with liquidity. These funds invest in short-term money market products such as Treasury bills, Certificates of Deposit (CDs), term deposits, and commercial paper. Liquid funds may be an alternative if you wish to temporarily store excess funds or establish an emergency fund. Overnight funds are another viable alternative if liquidity is a priority. These are open-ended debt mutual funds that invest in short-term debt instruments. This increases the liquidity of overnight funds. These funds carry a very low risk profile because they are unaffected by interest rate movements. Overnight funds are ideal for investors looking to temporarily store a big chunk of money.

Tax-saving funds

Tax-saving funds provide tax benefits in the form of Section 80C tax rebates. If you invest in these funds, you can claim annual tax deductions of up to Rs 1.5 lakh. Tax-advantaged funds may be appropriate if your primary investment objective is tax savings. Tax-advantaged funds include Equity Linked Savings Scheme (ELSS) funds.


What Are the Benefits of Investing in Mutual Funds?

On-the-Spot Diversification

A mutual fund may invest in hundreds, if not thousands, of stocks and bonds, often referred to as securities. One advantage of mutual funds is that their inherent diversification helps to mitigate investment risk. By definition, a mutual fund must be diversified such that the economic failure of a single company does not result in the implosion of the portfolio.

Rather than attempting to construct a diversified portfolio of stocks and bonds on your own, you can purchase units in a mutual fund and instantly acquire exposure to hundreds or thousands of securities. Each unit is diversified because it is prorated across the fund's holdings.

Minimal investment requirements

While the majority of mutual funds have minimum investment requirements, they are typically modest. Certain funds have lower minimum investment requirements or eliminate them entirely for participants who purchase units through an employer-sponsored retirement plan or enrol in the fund's automatic investing scheme.

Professional Management

Another advantage of mutual funds is that the fund manager provides competent management. The extent to which the manager makes those judgements are determined by whether the fund is managed actively or passively.

Management Styles: Passive vs. Active

Decide if you want a mutual fund that is actively or passively managed.

Actively managed funds are managed by portfolio managers who make selections of securities and assets for the fund. Managers conduct extensive research on assets and make investment decisions based on sector fundamentals, economic trends, and macroeconomic considerations.

Active funds, depending on the category, strive to outperform a benchmark index. Fees for active funds are frequently higher. Expense ratios might range between 0.6 and 1.5 percent.

Passively managed funds, which are frequently referred to as index funds, strive to replicate and monitor the performance of a benchmark index. Fees are generally lower than those charged by actively managed funds, with some funds charging as little as 0.15 percent in expenses. Unless the composition of the benchmark index changes, passive funds do not exchange their assets frequently.

This low turnover translates into cheaper operating expenses for the fund. Additionally, passively managed funds may have hundreds of assets, resulting in a fund that is extremely well-diversified. Because passively managed funds do not trade as frequently as actively managed funds, they generate less taxable revenue. This is a critical factor to consider while investing in non-tax-advantaged accounts.

The debate over whether actively managed funds are worth the additional fees they charge is ongoing. The majority of index funds do not outperform the index. Their minimal expenses often result in an index fund's return being significantly less than the index's performance. Nonetheless, the inability of actively managed funds to outperform their indexes has resulted in index funds becoming extremely popular with investors in recent years.

Which Mutual Funds Should You Invest In: Passive or Active?

Actively managed funds are managed by a portfolio manager who actively chooses which investments to acquire and sell in order to outperform an underlying benchmark, such as the stock market.

In comparison, a passive mutual fund seeks to match, not surpass, its benchmark. The fund's main purpose is to replicate the index's performance by investing in the same assets in nearly the same proportion as the index. A passive fund manager does not actively choose which stocks or bonds to buy and sell, which results in lower expense ratios for passive funds than for actively managed funds.

What Fees Are Charged by Mutual Funds?

Mutual funds may charge a variety of fees. The cost ratio is the most well-known type of mutual fund fee.

An expense ratio is a fee that funds charge shareholders on an annual basis. It is expressed as a percentage of assets under management and is removed from the fund's assets under management each year to meet operating expenses.

The expense ratio is utilised to cover the fund's operating expenses. Because the expenditure ratio is subtracted from the earnings of the fund, it affects the return to owners.


Selecting a mutual fund may appear difficult, but with some study and a grasp of your objectives, the process becomes easier. By conducting this due diligence prior to choose a fund, you can significantly boost your chances of success.


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